Wie sieht die rechtliche Umsetzung des autonomen Fahrens in den verschiedenen Ländern aus? Sehr interessante Übersicht.
Different countries face different challenges in regulating autonomous vehicles according to their existing frameworks. In the Netherlands, for instance, just like in any other European country, there is and has been what’s called a type approval. This style of regulation defines what the minimum requirements are for a car to be legal on the road. You could think of this as “bottom-up” regulation, since the government allows whatever you want, so long as it meets certain standards. Other countries have the opposite approach in automation. In the U.S., as one example, there is a “top-down” approach. You can put anything you want on the road, as long as you obey the rules regarding what you explicitly cannot do. Does one approach favor innovation more than the other? Across both countries, everyone is trying to apply as much common sense as is possible. Governing bodies, auto manufacturers and consumers everywhere want to get to the same place – they want autonomous vehicles to be safe, they want people around them to be safe, and they want everyone to benefit from technological advancements. Everyone involved is still learning Let’s go back to the Netherlands, whom KPMG just rated as the overall leader in readiness for autonomous vehicles. The approach they’ve adopted is agile trial and error. With the type approval in place, they can introduce decrees to allow for autonomous vehicle testing and risk assessment. In this case, assessment follows a test through ideal conditions, then introduces challenges to the ideal test. Those risks/challenges come in the form of bad weather, erratic drivers, and other variables that autonomous cars are very likely to encounter. As the Netherlands advances their testing approach, they also advance their definition of a legal driver. In the near term, that will mean that having an active legal driver at the wheel is part of the minimum safety standard (though that driver may not need to be operating the vehicle during the test). Further in the future, the legal driver minimum could be having a remote human, not in the car, who can intervene in case of issue.