Heute schauen wir uns einmal an, wie die Festkörper-Technologie von QuantumScape funktioniert. Interessant!
For those unfamiliar, batteries have cathodes and anodes, the positive and negative electrodes. These must be separated to prevent the battery from short circuiting. At worst, separation failures can cause fires and explosions, while at best, they prevent the battery from holding a charge. This separator must also be permeable to lithium or other ions that have to pass from one side of the battery or the other during charge an discharge.
With a solid separator and lithium metals, batteries would be much more compact for the same power output and storage capability. This would bring electric vehicles closer to being able to compete with fossil-fuel vehicles in terms of range and weight. When you consider that a gallon of gasoline contains 33.7 kWh of potentially usable chemical energy, and 3 gallons of gas weigh far less than a Tesla’s battery pack (plus is a lot smaller), there’s a big disadvantage. Smaller, more energy-dense batteries could close the gap quite a bit.
The problem with solid state batteries thus far is that the separators have all been plagued with problems. The separator needs to allow ions to pass through like a liquid battery, but without failing under stress or over time. High performing solid state batteries have thus far mostly fallen to dendrites, or little metallic crystal growths that eventually penetrate the separator and destroy the cell.
Quantumscape says it has come up with a ceramic separator that gives good power, doesn’t grow dendrites, and can last over 1,000 cycles. For multilayered batteries (which would be needed to power an electric car), it claims to have achieved over 800 cycles with similar capacity as the single layered cells.
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